To the content
2 . 2022

Abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: data analysis for 2011-2021


Background. Abdominal complications in cardiac surgery, with their relatively rare occurrence, are accompanied by high mortality, reaching 90%.

Aim. We assessed abdominal complications after heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.

Patients and methods. A single-center retrospective study was conducted on 15 380 patients enrolled between 2011 and 2021.

Results. The frequency of abdominal surgical complications is 1.01%. The most common were gastrointestinal bleeding 41.03% (n=64), paralytic ileus 35.25% (n=55), acute mesenteric ischemia 12.17% (n=19), acute cholecystitis 12.17% (n=19), acute pancreatitis 2.56% (n=4), gastric perforation 0.64% (n=1). 2 patients had a combination of 3 complications, 3 patients had 2 combinations of complications.

Сonclusion. Early diagnostics and timely are necessary to reduce postoperative  mortality.

Keywords:heart surgery; cardiopulmonary bypass; abdominal complications

Funding. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant #22-25-20016.
Conflict of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
For citation: Belov D.V., Lukin O.P., Fokin A.A., Abramovskikh O.S., Naimushina Yu.V. Abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: data analysis for 2011-2021. Clinical and Experimental Surgery. Petrovsky Journal. 2022;  10 (2): 96–102. DOI:  (in Russian)


1. Chor C.Y.T., Mahmood S., Khan I. H., Shirke M., Harky A. Gastrointestinal complications following cardiac surgery. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2020; 28 (9): 621–32. DOI:  

2. Azari A., Amini O., Lakziyan R., Sarchahi Z. Mesenteric ischemia following large left ventricular fibroid thrombosis due to myocardial infarction: a case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2021; 81: 105833. DOI:  

3. Deng Q.W., Tan W.C., Zhao B.C., Deng W.T., Xu M., Liu W.F., et al. Risk factors for postoperative acute mesenteric ischemia among adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Crit Care. 2017; 42: 294–303. DOI:  

4. Sato H., Nakamura M., Uzuka T., Kondo M. Detection  of patients at high risk for nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia after cardiovascular surgery. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2018; 13 (1): 115. DOI:  

5. Ma Y., Zabell T., Creasy A., Yang X., Chatterjee V., Villalba N., et al. Gut ischemia reperfusion injury induces lung inflammation via mesenteric lymph-mediated neutrophil activation. Front Immunol. 2020; 11: 586685. DOI:  

6. Sise M.J. Acute mesenteric ischemia. Surg Clin North Am. 2014; 94 (1): 165–81. DOI:  

7. Al-Diery H., Phillips A., Evennett N., Pandanaboyana S., Gilham M., Windsor J.A. The pathogenesis of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia: implications for research and clinical practice. J Intensive Care Med. 2019; 34 (10): 771–81. DOI:  

8. Hessel E.A. Abdominal organ injury after cardiac surgery. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2004; 8 (3): 243–63. DOI:  

9. Haywood N., Mehaffey J.H., Hawkins R.B., Zhang A., Kron I.L.,  Kern J.A., et al. Gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery: highly morbid but improving over time. J Surg Res. 2020; 254: 306–13. DOI:  

10.   Bazylev V.V., Evdokimov M.E., Pantyukhina M.A. Abdominal complications after surgical interventions on the heart with cardiopulmonary bypass. Khirurgiya. Zhurnal imeni N.I. Pirogova [Surgery. The Journal Named after N.I. Pirogov]. 2021; (8): 39–48. DOI:  (in Russian)

11.   Belov D.V., Garbuzenko D.V., Fokin A.A., Milievskaya E.B.  Risk factors for the development of abdominal complications after coronary bypass surgery. Byulleten’ NTsSSKh im. A.N. Bakuleva RAMN. Serdechno-sosudistye zabolevaniya [Bulletin of the Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery named after  A.N. Bakulev RAMS. Cardiovascular Diseases]. 2018; 19 (6): 794–9. DOI:  (in Russian)

12.   Belov D.V., Garbuzenko D.V., Fokin A.A., Naymushina Yu.V., Milievskaya E.B., Lukin O.P., et al. Scale for predicting the risk of early abdominal complications after coronary artery bypass grafting under cardiopulmonary bypass. Grudnaya i serdechno-sosudistaya khirurgiya [Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery]. 2019; 61 (3): 190–6. DOI:  (in Russian)

13.   Bjorck M., Koelemay M., Acosta S., Bastos Goncalves F., Kolbel T., Kolkman J.J., et al. Editor’s choice management of the diseases of mesenteric arteries and veins. Clinical Practice Guidelines of the European Society of Vascular Surgery (ESVS). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2017; 53: 460–510. DOI:  

14.   Bala M., Kashuk J., Moore E.E., et al. Acute mesenteric ischemia: guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery. World J Emerg Surg. 2017; 12: 38. DOI:  

15.   Aliev S.A.O., Aliev E.S.O. Ogilvie’s syndrome (acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon) in surgical practice (literature review). Koloproktologiya [Coloproctology]. 2021; 1 (75): 77–86. DOI:  (in Russian)

16.   Wattchow D., Heitmann P., Smolilo D., Spencer N.J., Parker D., Hibberd T., et al. Postoperative ileus – an ongoing conundrum. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2021; 33 (5): e14046. DOI:  

17.   Harnsberger C.R., Maykel J.A., Alavi K. Postoperative  ileus. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2019; 32 (3): 166–70. DOI:  

18.   Cipriani G., Gibbons S.J., Kashyap P.C., Farrugia G. Intrinsic gastrointestinal macrophages: their phenotype and role in gastrointestinal motility. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 2 (2): 120–30. DOI:  

19.   García-Compeán D., Del Cueto-Aguilera A.N., Jiménez-Rodríguez A.R., González-González J.A., Maldonado-Garza H.J. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of gastrointestinal angiodysplasias: a critical review and view points. World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25 (21): 2549-64. DOI:  

20.   Jackson C.S., Strong R. Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia: diagnosis and management. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2017; 27 (1): 51–62. DOI:  

21.   Hess N.R., Seese L.M., Hong Y., Afflu D., Wang Y., Tho- ma F.W., et al. Gastrointestinal complications after cardiac surgery: incidence, predictors, and impact on outcomes. J Card Surg. 2021; 36 (3): 894–901. DOI:  

22.   Chung J.W., Ryu S.H., Jo J.H., Park J.Y., Lee S., Park S.W., et al. Clinical implications and risk factors of acute pancreatitis after cardiac valve surgery. Yonsei Med J. 2013; 54 (1): 154–9. DOI:

All articles in our journal are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0 license)

Sergey L. Dzemeshkevich
MD, Professor (Moscow, Russia)

Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»